Dr. Alexandros Kokkas

Short CV

He obtained his Dental Degree from the University of Thessaloniki, Greece and his Certificate in Orthodontics from Loyola University of Chicago, USA. He served as President of the European Federation of Orthodontic Specialists Associations (EFOSA) and the Hellenic Professional Union of Orthodontists (HPUO). He is a founding member of the Greek Society of Lingual Orthodontics.

His memberships include the World Federation of Orthodontists, the American Association of Orthodontists and the European Orthodontic Society.

He is in private practice in Lausanne, Switzerland





Title: Lingual orthodontics in the medically compromised patient

AIM: The development of lingual orthodontics gave access to orthodontic treatment to many adult patients who otherwise would not seek orthodontic treatment with the traditional non-esthetic appliances. The purpose of this presentation is to update the lingual orthodontist on certain medical problems which affect his/her practice and give some guidelines on how to assess and manage the medically compromised patient.

METHODS: The current bibliography has been meticulously reviewed for the latest developments in the field of medical problems which affect lingual orthodontic treatment. 

RESULTS: According to the bibliography up to 35% of patients who seek regular orthodontic treatment may have underlying medical issues. This percentage probably increases in the mainly adult patients who seek lingual orthodontic treatment. Such medical conditions include: cardiovascular, endocrine, hematological, neurological, latent and chronic viral infections, and pregnancy. Certain medical conditions requiring patients to be on medicines like bisphosphonates and others require special attention.

CONCLUSION: The lingual orthodontist should be aware of medical problems which affect the course and the outcome of the lingual orthodontic treatment and be able to efficiently manage them in order to avoid any complications